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Friday, September 12, 2014PrintSubscribe
Announcing Workflow Register

Workflows in Line-of-Business Applications

Workflow is a repeatable pattern of business activity.  Business applications mirror the real-world patterns through data collection performed in sequences of user-interface screens.

Software developers create hard-coded data structures and data entry forms based on the input from business users. A line-of-business application represents the current understanding of a business process by a development team.

A successful line-of-business application eventually evolves to match the requirements of business processes in organization. The dynamic nature of a business life-cycle will require constant tweaks and fine tuning even in a successful implementation.

Application customization and deployment are very expensive and frequently disruptive. Line-of-business applications must include built-in tools to allow changing application behavior without modifying the core application code.

Procedural Workflows

Many software packages include implementations of procedural workflows. Procedural Workflow allows non-developers to describe sequences of application operations with optional conditions and loops. Procedural workflows can be presented as visual workflow diagrams or text-based scripts. Procedural workflows offer a great tool that allows altering application behavior without changing the core application.

Complexity of procedural workflows grows exponentially when business users are trying to express various exceptions that exist in real-world business processes. Procedural workflows do not offer the means of limiting access to data.

State Machine Workflows

State Machine workflows are composed of rules triggered by the state of data, user identity, and time. Each rule defines a test that allows inspecting the state of data. If the test has passed, then the rule is “triggered”. The triggered rules affect application behavior. If there is no state test, then a rule is considered to be “triggered” by the mere fact of association with the current user identity.

A state-driven rule effects a specific type of application functionality. For example, a rule with Allow type can define a filter that reduces a set of records to a smaller subset based on user identity. If the rule is “triggered”, then the filter is applied to any SQL statement reading data from the application database.  A rule with Transform type may remove data modification actions from a data entry form. If the rule is triggered, then the end user will not be able to Edit, Delete, Import or create New data records.

A large collection of rules affecting application behavior can be developed. Developers organize related rules in groups. Groups of rules are associated with users and optional schedules. Association of end users with rule groups and scheduling can be outsourced to application administrators.

The standard end user experience is defined by the implementation of line-of-business application. The rules of the state machine workflow will alter user experience based on user identity, time, and state of data.

State-based rules hide the complexity of the real-world business processes by breaking them down into small and manageable bits of functionality. State-based rules are great when it comes to implementing real-world exception. A state-based rule can define data filters, user interface alterations, business rule injection, and much more.

Adaptive Line-of-Business Apps

For the past few years we have worked on an integrated solution that will enable declarative state-machine workflows in the generated applications out-of-the-box. The goal is to enable adaptive customization of live apps without making changes to the code that require re-deployment.

We have identified the following customization requirements that must be available in a live application:

  1. Ability to define Allow/Deny filtering rules that can be applied to any data retrieved by application.
  2. Ability to create customization rules applied to XML definition of a data controller.
  3. Ability to replace an entire data controller with a substitute.
  4. Ability to create “content” and “data” pages in a live app.

Several prototypes have been developed but appeared too complex to operate.

Meanwhile developers working with Code On Time had an option to implement requirements (1), (2), and (3) on their own:

  1. Dynamic Access Control Rules -
  2. Data Controller Virtualization -
  3. Substitution of controllers -

Requirement (4) can be satisfied in SharePoint Factory and DotNetNuke Factory Projects. Both products are content management systems that allow creating pages at runtime.

This year we have finally arrived to a solution that will become integrated in the apps created as Azure Factory, Mobile Factory, Web App Factory, or Web Site Factory projects.

The solution will be rolled into a single feature called “Workflow Register”.

It will include an integrated Content Management System (CMS) as a core component of generated apps. CMS will allow creating dynamic “data” and “content” pages at runtime.

“Data” pages will include markup that uses “data-“ attributes to define data views. For example, master-detail page at is defined as follows:

<div data-flow="NewRow">
    <div id="view1" data-controller="Categories" data-view="grid1" data-show-in-summary="true"></div>
<div data-flow="NewRow" style="padding-top: 8px">
    <div data-activator="Tab|Products">
        <div id="view2" data-controller="Products" data-view="grid1" 
            data-filter-source="view1" data-filter-fields="CategoryID" 
            data-page-size="5" data-auto-hide="container" data-show-modal-forms="true"></div>

“Content” pages may contain arbitrary HTML.

Here is the screen shot of a “content” page based on popular Bootstrap framework, which will be integrated in the Code On Time release due out at the end of September 2014.


If workflow Register is enabled in a project, then the app generator will install a custom database schema to the primary database. The tables will have “ease_” prefix. The schema includes tables to support the following features:

  • Workflows - specifies Allow, Deny, Transform, Define rules that are applied to various application components, such as pages, menu items, controllers, etc.
  • Content Management System – provides storage for dynamic content, such as pages and menu items.
  • Register - global registry that associates user identity references (user IDs and roles) with workflows and optional schedules.
  • Permissions – a collection of  workflow rules associated with users.


The purpose of workflow Register is to enable management of various permissions by application administrators at runtime.

All users will have access to the Register entries associated with their user ID. Only administrators will have access to all entries in the Register.

Entries created by administrators have “Approved” status.  Users will also be able to assign workflows to themselves. Such entries will be created with “Pending” status. Only “Approved” workflow register entries will be taken into account by the application framework.

A person assigning a workflow to a user or role does not need to know the details of workflow implementation. An entry in Register may read:

Workflow Human Resources is assigned to John Doe on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday starting on November 15, 2014 and ending on February 1, 2015.

User John Doe will have have access to human resources pages on the specified dates. The workflow may allow or deny access to data records exposed on the pages.

Developers will be able to create workflow rules that delegate management of Register entries to the users other than administrators.

Workflow Register comes with pre-defined data controllers and management pages exposed through “Register” menu option in generated apps.


Workflows are collections of rules defined by application developers. A developer can create a set of pre-defined workflows as a part of application at design time.  New workflow rules can be created and existing ones can be customized at runtime as needed.

Rules may affect application behavior in multiple ways. For example:

  • A filter that allows or denies access to data can be specified
  • New pages can be made available to end users
  • Data controller actions defined in the application can be dynamically altered at runtime.
  • New SQL, JavaScript, and Email business rules can be introduced in data controllers.

The rule definition system if very simple and exceptionally extensible to fit the most demanding customization requirements.

Content Management System

Content management system allows populating an application with new “content” and “data” pages.

CMS may also store images, style sheets, JavaScript, and any other files or documents.

Application workflows determine access to the content. Content may be publicly available or limited to specific individuals or groups of users.


Permissions are collections of  workflow rules matched to a user identity.

Permissions are evaluated by application framework when users access various applications resources. Application framework matches workflow Register entries with the user identity and resource type. Matched workflow rules are automatically engaged by application framework.

For example, if “Allow” rule defines a filter limiting visibility of customer records, then the filter is included in SELECT statements executed by the framework when application tries to read a list of customers.

If a workflow assignment has an associated schedule, then permission engagement will be time-sensitive.

Permissions are created by application framework on-demand directly from the workflow Register entries. Permissions are refreshed when associated workflows are changed.


We are planning to release various components of Workflow Register with each upcoming release.

The upcoming release due out by the end of month in September will include several elements of Workflow Register:

  • Support for content pages.
  • Support for declarative data pages.
  • Integrated Bootstrap framework to allow creation of compelling responsive content pages.
  • One-to-One entities support in data controllers. This particular feature is introduced to support “ease_” database tables.

Our production schedule indicates that Workflow Register will become available in November of 2014 or a sooner.

Wednesday, August 27, 2014PrintSubscribe
Page Headers in Touch UI

Page headers are displayed at the top of every page to inform the user of which view or control they are currently working with. The picture below displays the page header of “Orders”, visible below the page title.

The "Orders" page header is displayed below the title bar.

In pages that display data views, the header is hidden on two conditions:

1. When the current view is the entry point to the page.

The "Customers" page header is hidden due to the fact that this view is the entry point to the page.

2. When the text of the page header matches the title of the page displayed on the menu bar at the top of the screen. For example, the child view of Employees on the Employees page in a sample Northwind app will not have a page header.

The child view does not show page header as it has the same text as the page title.

Hiding the Page Header

The header can also be hidden on a per-page basis.

Start the Project Designer. In the Project Explorer window, double-click on the Customers page.

Customers page in the Project Explorer.

Specify the following:

Property Value
Custom Style Tall

Save the page, and press Browse on the toolbar to generate the app and open the page in your default browser. Select a customer, and tap See All next to the list of orders. Note that the “Orders” page header is not displayed.

Customers page does not display any page headers.

Page Headers in Custom User Controls

The page header text for user controls is derived from the data-activator tag. By default, this tag is set to the name of the user control.

User controls show the control name as page header by default.

The header text can be specified using the data-page-header tag. For example, let’s specify the page header text for a freshly created user control. Open the user control file in Visual Studio and make the following highlighted addition:

    This section provides a sample markup for Touch UI user interface. 
<div id="TestUserControl" data-app-role="page" data-activator="Button|TestUserControl" data-page-header="Custom Header">
    <div data-role="content">
            Markup of <i>TestUserControl</i> custom user control for Touch UI.

Save the file and refresh the web page. Note that the page header text has been changed.

Custom header text has been specified for the user control page header.

The page header can be hidden by specifying “false” for the data-page-header tag. Make the following change:

    This section provides a sample markup for Touch UI user interface. 
<div id="TestUserControl" data-app-role="page" data-activator="Button|TestUserControl" data-page-header="false">
    <div data-role="content">
            Markup of <i>TestUserControl</i> custom user control for Touch UI.

Save the file and refresh. The page header will not be present.

The page header has been hidden on this user control page.

Tuesday, August 26, 2014PrintSubscribe
Intro To Pages in Code On Time Apps

Every app created with Code On Time generator has various pages organized into a hierarchy. Each page may contain multiple containers that are used to organize content.

Placed into these containers are data views and user controls. Data views are used to bind controllers to pages and allow the user to view and interact with the data. Data views may interact with each other in order to display master-detail relationships. Controls represent bindings of user controls, which contain custom HTML and code that can expand the functionality of the application. Pages can also be configured to link to other websites.

The heirarchy of elements in pages of Code On Time apps.

The picture below shows the default organization when a sample Northwind app is created.

The default page configuration of a sample Northwind app.

When an application is first created, pages are automatically composed for each table included in the project, and a page hierarchy will be determined by any foreign key relationships between these tables. Master and child views will be placed and configured on the pages.

A Home page is created for every application and contains two controls – the table of contents, and a default Welcome message. Any views will be placed under the “Reports” menu option. If ASP.NET Membership is enabled, a Membership page will be added at the end to allow any users with role “Administrators” to manage the users and roles of the app.

Pages can be rearranged easily using drag & drop techniques in the Project Explorer.

The behavior of page elements differs between Desktop and Touch UI.

Inter Page Navigation

Pages rendered with Desktop user interface will display all controls and data views at the same time. Data views can be grouped inside tabs, triggered by Tasks items on the side bar, and can be conditionally hidden. The Complex Page Layout demo shows multiple data views organized into different tabs and containers. Users can navigate through pages of records using the pager on each data view.

Desktop UI displays all controls and data views at the same time.

Controls will also be rendered in their own areas on the page.


The same page in Touch UI will show the same layout of data views.

Touch UI renders all data views as echos on the page.

Note that each data view shows a small subset of records.  The user must click on See All in order to see the entire set of data in full screen. The views on the main page “echo” the contents of the full screen data view.

The full screen presentation offers infinite scrolling and easy access to actions on the menu bar and side bar. If there is only one master data view on the page, this presentation will be activated by default.

Clicking the 'See All' button will activate the full screen data view.

Navigating to a page with a single control will display the contents of the control in full screen. When a page with several controls is rendered, a list of available controls will be displayed.

Controls in Touch UI are initially rendered as buttons.

Combining controls and data views on the same page will render the control as a button and display the “echo” data views.

Controls and data views will be rendered as buttons and echos, respectively.

Clicking on a list item will open the user control or data view in full screen.

Activating the button for a control will display the contents of the control in full screen mode.

The user may return to the main screen by tapping on the Back arrow in the top left corner of the screen.